Warmer temperatures, on land and at sea, are changing global weather patterns and changing how and where precipitation falls. These changing patterns aggravate dangerous and deadly droughts, heat waves, floods, wildfires and storms, including hurricanes. They also melt ice caps, glaciers and permafrost layers, which can lead to sea level rise and coastal erosion. Warmer temperatures also affect entire ecosystems and unbalance migration patterns and life cycles. For example, an early spring can make trees and plants bloom before bees and other pollinators appear. While in some regions global warming means longer growing seasons and increased food production, areas already facing water shortages are expected to become drier, creating the potential for drought, crop losses or forest fires. But climate change is a global challenge that does not respect national borders. Emissions everywhere affect people everywhere. This is a subject that requires solutions that need to be coordinated at the international level, and it requires international cooperation to help developing countries move towards a low-carbon economy. Han Chen, director of energy policy in the NRDC`s international program, is keeping an eye on the overall vision as she works to promote a global energy transition. The Paris Agreement, developed during the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) over two weeks in Paris and on the 12th the world`s heads of state and government, representing 195 nations, reached consensus on an agreement that includes commitments from all countries to combat climate change and adapt to its effects. The Kyoto Protocol can be defined as the implementation of the UNFCCC.
It was then the first global obligation to control the emissions responsible for global warming and to lay the foundations for future international agreements on climate change. Although it was signed on 16 March 1998, the Protocol did not enter into force until 16 February 2005. This provision requires the “link” between different emissions trading schemes – as measured emission reductions must avoid “double counting”, the transferred mitigation results must be accounted for as a gain in emission units for one party and a reduction in emission units for the other party.  Due to the heterogeneity of NDCs and national emissions trading schemes, ITMS, under the auspices of the UNFCCC, will provide a comprehensive interconnection format.  The provision therefore also creates pressure on countries to introduce emission management systems – if a country wants to use less costly cooperative approaches to achieve its DNNs, it must monitor the carbon units for its economies.  In the context of this debate, important climate agreements have evolved in terms of how they aim to reduce emissions. . . .