Although the victorious mujahideen formed a government in 1992 through the Peshawar Accords, Pakistan remained unhappy with the new leaders Rabbani and Massoud, including their foreign policy, to maintain friendly relations with India as during the communist era. Pakistan`s secret services insisted on a “trustworthy” government in Afghanistan and began funding Hekmatyar, the only mujahideen commander who did not sign the agreements to fight the new Afghan government, in the hope that it would win and install a new government. With Pakistani funding, Hekmatyar forces besieged the city of Kabul for three years with thousands of rockets and killed thousands of people. However, when it was learned that Hekmatyar was not in a position to take power in Kabul, Pakistan looked elsewhere. The Taliban movement had just formed with the help of Pakistan`s Interior Minister, Naseerullah Babar, and Pakistan`s secret services threw their weight behind the new movement.  In September 1994, the Taliban movement conquered the Afghan city of Kandahar and began its long conquest with the help of Pakistan. The Taliban claimed to want to cleanse Afghanistan of warlords and criminals. According to Pakistani and Afghan expert Ahmed Rashid, “between 1994 and 1999, it is estimated that few Pakistani volunteers trained and fought in Afghanistan” to keep the Taliban regime in power.  The role of the Pakistani army during this period has been described by some international observers as a “creeping invasion” of Afghanistan.  UN documents also show the role of Arab and Pakistani support forces in taliban massacres.  Cooperation between the two countries implies possible cooperation in the field of defence and the exchange of information, as well as the improvement of two-way trade and the abolition of visas for diplomats from both nations.   In November 2010, the two states formed a joint chamber of commerce to develop trade relations and resolve the problems faced by traders.
  The APTTA agreement came into force after several Afghan trucks delivered fruit from Afghanistan to the Wagah border with India in June 2011. With the completion of APTTA, the United States and other NATO countries plan to revitalize the ancient Silk Road. The aim is to help the local economies of Afghanistan and Pakistan by connecting South Asia to Central Asia and the Middle East.  APTTA aims to improve trade between the two countries, but Pakistan often delays containers in Afghanistan especially after the NATO attack in Pakistan in 2011.